What is Apigenin?
Apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a natural plant flavonoid, is the aglycon of some naturally occurring glycosides. Apigenin widely exists in the leaves and stems of tropical vegetables.
Apigenin, as a known bioflavonoid, has been shown to exhibit various biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, ant-genotoxic, anti-allergic, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and antimicrobial.
Food Sources of Apigenin
Apigenin is one of the nutrients that are abundantly present in green vegetables such as parsley, onions, maize, wheat sprouts, and in fruits, such as grapefruit, oranges, and so on.
However, One of the most frequent sources of apigenin is celery (Apium graveolens), a marsh plant in the family of Apiaceae that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity. Apigenin is the most extracted nutrient in celery, containing 108 mg of apigenin per kg.
Other sources for apigenin include beverages such as wine and beer brewed from natural ingredients in natural sources like Chamomilla Recutita.
How does Apigenin work?
Apigenin is one of the common dietary flavonoids, which is abundantly found in many fruits, vegetables, and medicinal herbs. It serves various physiological functions, such as antioxidant, potent anti-inflammatory, antiviral activities, antibacterial, and blood pressure reduction.
Apigenin plays an essential role in cancer prevention by inducing apoptosis in various cell lines.
Some research found that apigenin could inhibit the growth, proliferation, and transfer of ca-ov3 (human ovarian cancer cell); it induces apoptosis of ca-ov3 by keeping the cancer cells in stasis in the G2/M phase. The effect is related to time and dose.
Apigenin can inhibit the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Apigenin starves the tumor by reducing the source of glucose, which is the food on which cancer cells live. Besides, Apigenin can improve the effectiveness of the chemotherapy drug- gemcitabine.
It was found that apigenin in low content had a low cytotoxic effect and could not induce human acute myeloid leukemia (hl-60) cells to apoptosis effectively. However, apigenin can enhance the inhibitory effect of cisplatin (DDP) on hl-60 cell proliferation while combining with different concentrations of DDP. So Apigenin may have a chemotherapy-sensitization effect on hl-60; Low concentrations of apigenin can also reduce the resistance of hl-60 cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, which may be related to the down-regulation of NF-κB and BCL-2. (NF-KB is a kind of protein complex that controls DNA transcription, the production of cytokines, and cell survival; BCL-2 is encoded in the body through the BCL2 gene, it is the original member of the BCL-2 regulatory proteins family that can regulate cell death )
Apigenin can reduce liver injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion through antagonizing lipid peroxidation and scavenging free radicals.
Apigenin can reduce liver injury caused by oxidative stress due to its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
Pharmacological experiments have proved that apigenin has an apparent protective effect on alcohol-induced liver/hepatocyte injury, and its primary mechanism is related to the inhibition of CYP2E1 expression in the liver/hepatocyte.
Apigenin inhibits osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, and also prevents bone loss.
Apigenin protects bone tissue by reducing bone loss in the body.
Some studies related to the MC3T3-E1, an osteoblast precursor cell line derived from Mus musculus (mouse) calvaria, found that apigenin can inhibit the TNF-α, IFN-γ, and then induced the secretion of several cytokines that promote osteoclast formation.
Apigenin also inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipose precursor cells into adipocytes strongly, therefore inhibiting the differentiation attendant inhibition of adipocyte differentiation-induced IL-6, MCP-1, lectin product.
Apigenin inhibits the differentiation of osteoclasts from RAW264.7 cell lines and then inhibits the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts. It can also induce osteoclast apoptosis and inhibit bone resorption.
Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity
Apigenin restrains the inflammation process, increases the IL-10 levels, and normalizes the oxidative stress parameters
Apigenin inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines and induces anti-inflammatory cytokine production.
Some literature suggests that apigenin alleviates tissue inflammation induced by oxidative stress in tissues by modulating various oxidative stress markers, interleukins, blood enzyme markers, and expression of several other related enzymes.
Regulation of endocrine
Apigenin can regulate blood sugar, treat thyroid insufficiency, and control lipid peroxidation
It was found that apigenin could increase the levels of insulin and thyroxine in diabetic animals, and decrease the concentration of blood sugar and the activity of glucose-6-phosphorylase (G-6-Pase).
Apigenin reversed the effects of increased serum cholesterol, increased liver lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased activities of antioxidants such as catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in alloxan-induced animals.
In animals with regular blood sugar, apigenin can also reduce serum cholesterol and liver lipid peroxidation, and increase the activity of antioxidants in cells.
Pharmacological properties of apigenin
Apigenin has been attached to great importance in recent years, as a beneficial health promoter on account of its lower intrinsic toxicity and its health effects on regular versus cancer cells, compared with other structurally related flavonoids. There is a bulk of research evidence that has shown apigenin has great therapeutic potential for many diseases:
Health Benefits of apigenin
- Inhibit the growth of cancer cells.
- Lower blood pressure
- Protects the cardiovascular system
- Help sleep, calm nerves, eliminate irritability
- Resist inflammation
- Prevent osteoporosis
- Diuretic effect.
- Inhibit platelet aggregation.
There seems to be no study indicating that apigenin has side effects. Particular attention should be paid to its anti-coagulation function, so patients with related diseases should pay attention, not to excessive intake.
As we already know, apigenin is a potent natural flavonoid, and it has anti-cancer, antibacterial, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, and many other benefits. The dosage may differ for different purposes.
For anxiolytic effects, doses of apigenin from 3mg/kg to 10mg/kg are effective without sedation, and higher doses induce sedation in addition to reductions in anxiety.
For general health, doses at a range of 20-50mg together with amino acids and vitamins are preferred.
Where to buy Apigenin in bulk?
Wuxi Cima Science Co., Ltd is a professional manufacturer with over 15-years of experience in the nutritional raw material. We have now arranged a new production schedule for Apigenin, which is our hot project for the health supplements.
The specifications of Cima Apigenin are 98% min, all high quality guaranteed at a good price. If you have any interest, please kindly send us an email, we will give the pricing and technical documents such as the certificate of analysis, and MSDS.