What’s CDP Choline?
CDP Choline is a single nucleotide composed of ribose, cytosine, pyrophosphate, and choline. CDP Choline, as an endogenous compound, is an indispensable intermediate in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in cell membrane structure. Its formation is a rate-limiting step in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and a natural biochemical process in the cell membrane.
CDP Choline naturally exists in cells of human and animal tissues, especially in organs. It can also enhance neuroplasticity and is a natural precursor of phospholipid synthesis, mainly phosphatidylcholine, or, more precisely, acts as a metabolic pathway choline source for acetylcholine biosynthesis.
Here is the CDP Choline chemical structure:
CDP Choline and CDP-choline
CDP-choline (Cytidine-5′-diphosphate choline) is an endogenous compound generally produced by the body. When it is introduced as a drug, it can be called CDP Choline. CDP Choline and CDP-choline have the same molecular structure. CDP-choline is an endogenous form that exists in every cell of the human body. CDP Choline is an exogenous form. There are two forms of CDP Choline:
- Sodium CDP Choline, a prescription drug for the treatment of neurological disorders in many countries;
- Free CDP Choline, a dietary supplement in the United States.
Why need more CDP Choline?
Cytocholine (CDP-choline or cytidine-5-diphosphate choline) is an essential precursor of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and also a necessary precursor for the synthesis of membrane phospholipids. Phospholipids produce structural integrity of all cell membranes, which is essential for cell growth and repair. In the brain, phospholipids are also necessary for the synaptic function of communication between all brain cells — the main phospholipids in the brain-phosphatidylcholine account for 30% of gray matter.
The brain preferentially uses CDP-choline to produce acetylcholine. If the availability of CDP-choline is low, phospholipids are stolen from neuronal membranes to produce acetylcholine, and phospholipid synthesis is slowed down, thus impairing the integrity and function of the layers. So, it’s essential to maintain adequate levels of CDP Choline.
How CDP Choline Works?
CDP-choline is a water-soluble compound with a bioavailability of more than 90%. Exogenous CDP-choline (administered orally and intravenously) is hydrolyzed to absorb cytidine and choline and synthesized in the brain via cytidine triphosphate choline (CTP) -cytidyl transferase.
Especially in humans, plasma cytidine is converted to uridine phosphate in the brain, and uridine phosphate is converted to cytidine triphosphate at the level of neurons.
CDP Choline Food Sources
As many of you know, choline is a water-soluble, natural essential nutrient. It is a component of lecithin and therefore exists in various foods commonly found in the human diet:
Can we satisfy our body’s need for choline by eating these choline-containing foods? The answer is not enough, because the choline content in food is not very high, and the feeling of satiety will make you refuse to continue eating. Also, CDP Choline is easily absorbed by the intestinal tract and more efficiently crosses the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, supplementation of CDP Choline is an effective way to “add food” to the brain.
CDP Choline Benefits
Studies have shown that CDP Choline enhances endogenous brain plasticity, reduces acute brain injury, and improves functional recovery in stroke animal models. In a survey of more than 1,000 stroke patients with clots (ischemic stroke), it was found that stroke patients who took CDP Choline orally within 24 hours were more likely to recover completely within three months than other coronary stroke patients. Patients who received an intravenous injection of CDP Choline (IV) within 12 hours of ischemic stroke and received seven days of treatment after that also had improved recovery.
The Italian team found that CDP Choline was more effective in cognitive decline after stroke.
CDP Choline helps to restore memory loss in people aged 50 to 85(Including patients with Alzheimer’s disease). In two demographic studies, significant correlations were found between blood choline intake or free choline levels and cognitive performance in adults and the elderly. Higher choline intake was associated with better cognitive performance, and lower plasma free choline concentration was associated with reduced cognitive ability.
Researchers found that first, he increased acetylcholine levels, produced stronger neurons, and more excellent dendritic connectivity, which meant increased attention, learning, language fluency, and muscle contraction in the short term. Increase the level of uridine, thereby promoting healthy RNA synthesis. It improves immediate and delayed recall of words and objects, verbal memory, short-term and long-term memory, attention and perceptual-motor ability, and behavioral and emotional control.
Health for Glaucoma
There is evidence that CDP Choline may improve vision in some glaucoma patients. Oral CDP Choline can reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) and treat primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Experimental data and a few clinical studies have shown that this substance may counteract some important pathological mechanisms that seem to contribute to the initiation and progression of POAG, such as excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Standard forms are eye drops added with CDP Choline, which has been used with penicillin.
At the same time, CDP Choline can also improve visual loss caused by optic nerve obstruction (ischemic optic neuropathy).
Some studies have shown that CDP Choline has positive effects on muscle strength, Parkinson’s disease tremor, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and head trauma.
CDP Choline Safety
The safety of CDP Choline is the primary concern of consumers. In our view, CDP Choline is safe. In 2012, the Irish Food Authority approved CDP Choline as a Novel Foods. In 2014, the European Union approved CDP Choline as a Novel Foods for medical food and food supplements, and it entered into force in 27 of its alliance countries. The recommended maximum daily dose is 1000 mg.
The FDA has no record of GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe), but one manufacturer(Kyowa Hakko U.S.A., Inc.) made self-affirmation of the brand component Cognizin(Citicoline from stabilized cytidine 5’diphosphocholine) in 2009.
CDP Choline side effects
CDP Choline has very low toxicity in animals and humans. Clinically, a dose of 2,000 mg per day has been observed and approved. Mild short-term adverse reactions are rare, most commonly including stomachache and diarrhea. CDP Choline may exacerbate adrenocorticotropic hormone or cortisol secretion related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and severe depression.
CDP Choline doge
Pregnancy and lactation: If you are in these two states, there is not enough reliable information about the safety of CDP Choline. Keep it safe and avoid use.
Children: Children aged 18 or younger should not be used because of clinical insecurity and inefficiency
Age-related decline in thinking skills: 250 mg/day-1000 mg/day
For ongoing diseases, blood vessels serve the brain (chronic cerebrovascular disease): 600 mg/day
Immediate treatment of stroke due to clots (ischemic stroke): intake of 500 mg/day-2000 mg/day within 24 hours after stroke
CDP Choline VS Choline Bitartrate
In terms of cost, Choline Bitartrate’s price is much lower than CDP Choline’s. This is for a reason. Although by weight, Choline Bitartrate contains about 40% choline, which seems to be the same as choline from other sources. However, studies have shown that Choline Bitartrate is very ineffective in crossing the blood-brain barrier. In other words, taking Choline Bitartrate for cognitive enhancement is almost ineffective. Therefore, Choline Bitartrate can only be used as a simple choline supplement, not as a stimulating mental supplement.
In contrast, although the cost of CDP Choline is higher than that of Choline Bitartrate, CDP Choline is more suitable than Choline Bitartrate for choline supplementation of pupils.
CDP Choline VS Alpha GPC
At first, they seem to do the same thing in terms of overall brain function and mental acuity. However, there are some differences in how to achieve these benefits. For example, Alpha GPC and CDP Choline have different metabolic processes. When Alpha GPC is decomposed, acetylcholine is released as a by-product, while CDP Choline is a derivative of the same chemical substance.
Alpha GPC may also have many interesting side effects, but CDP Choline does not. Taking Alpha GPC improves energy and strength, as it helps muscles recover after exercise. Alpha GPC can also increase the production of growth hormones in the human body and act as a weak stimulant.
On the other hand, CDP Choline may have other benefits that alpha GPC does not have. One of the most exciting concerns is the possibility of magnifying the impact of other psychotropic drugs. For this reason, many people believe that CDP Choline is evident in any supplementation plan.
CDP Choline and Alpha GPC together
What if Alpha GPC and CDP Choline were used together? This is a perfect combination, A and B are two different sources of choline supplements; everyday use will increase the effect of supplementation. The other two groups had different metabolic patterns, which increased the metabolic rate and absorption efficiency.
The combination of Alpha GPC and CDP Choline can effectively promote the production of ACh and increase the release of dopamine. ATP content and creatine phosphate content in vivo are effectively increased, which is welcomed by many students, athletes, and bodybuilding enthusiasts, and supports their attention and mental performance in the bodybuilding process.
Many brands in the market have introduced this combination, and have matched other nootropics ingredients, like Uridine-5’-Monophosphate (UMP), SAGE extract, Vinpocetine, Phosphatidylserine, Cognium(CERA-Q silk protein Hydrolysate).
Application history of CDP Choline
CDP Choline has been shown to have proven neuroprotective properties in animals and humans. It is administered orally as a supplement or intravenously or by injection.
CDP Choline was first developed in Japan and is mainly used to treat stroke. It was later introduced as a prescription drug in many European countries. In these countries, prescriptions are now often prescribed to solve problems related to brain circulation. In the United States, CDP Choline is sold as a dietary supplement.
Where to buy CDP Choline powder?
One of the most well-known brand components in the CDP Choline market is Cognizin, but as an American supplier, their costs will be relatively high. So Cognizin is hard to supply bulk CDP Choline powder.
Cima Science has been producing bulk CDP Choline (citicoline) powder since 2010 and has been recognized by many customers in Europe, the United States, and other countries in terms of quality. If you are interested or need our support, please feel free to contact us.