What is Nicotinamide Riboside?
Nicotinamide riboside is a newly appreciated form of Vitamin B3, with unique properties; it is a formal precursor of NAD+.
Nicotinamide riboside (NR), first described in 1944 as a growth factor (Factor V) for Haemophilus influenza, and in 1951, NR, first investigated as a metabolic fate in mammalian tissues.
Forms of Nicotinamide Riboside
As you may notice that, there are two forms of NR available, one is Nicotinamide Riboside, and the other is Nicotinamide Riboside chloride.
Chemically speaking, they are two completely different compounds since they have different CAS numbers, NR with 1341-23-7 while NR chloride with 23111-00-4. NR is not stable at room temperature, while NR chloride is stable. Famous patented Brand named NIAGEN®, released by Chromadex Inc in 2013, is the form of Nicotinamide riboside chloride, aiming to reverse signs of aging from inside your body. Nicotinamide Riboside manufactured from Cima Science is also in the chloride powder form. If not specified, NR will refer to the NR chloride form in the article below.
Nicotinamide riboside food sources
The amount of NR in foods is minute, compared with that in nutritional supplements. However, what are the primary food sources that contain nicotinamide riboside (NR)?
- Cow milk
Cow milk usually has ∼12 μmol NAD(+) precursor vitamins/L, of which 60% was present as nicotinamide, and 40% was current as NR. (Conventional milk contained more NR than organic milk), a study published by the University of Iowa, in 2016
An old study has stated, “One inhibitory substance was isolated from yeast and was found to be nicotinamide riboside, it may have from NAD (P) during the preparation of yeast extracts, or from dietary yeast supplements during digestion in vivo.” While there is no quantitative data on yeast
The beer has a fair amount of carbs and drinking those in a liquid form like that will have a glycemic impact; various research papers have mentioned beer as being a food source of nicotinamide riboside.
Also, there may be trace amounts of NR like whey protein, mushrooms, etc.
For many people, dairy is off limits for other reasons. The food sources of nicotinamide riboside might be useful, but are less efficient than an NR supplement.
Why Nicotinamide Riboside (NR) designate as an authentic NAD+ precursor vitamin invertebrates?
There are five lines of reasoning support it:
- Haemophilus influenza, a flu-causing bacterium, which has no de novo pathway and cannot utilize Na or Nam, is strictly dependent on NR, NMN, or NAD+ for growth in the host bloodstream.
- Milk is a source of NR.
- NR protects murine DRG neurons in an ex vivo axonopathy assay via transcriptional induction of the nicotinamide riboside kinase (NRK) 2 gene.
- Exogenously added NR and derivatives increase NAD+ accumulation in a dose-dependent fashion in human cell lines.
- Candida glabrata, an opportunistic fungus that depends on NAD+ precursor vitamins for growth, utilizes NR during disseminated infection.
Nicotinamide Riboside VS Nicotinamide VS Niacin
Niacin (or nicotinic acid), is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient. It has the formula C6H5NO2.
Nicotinamide or called niacinamide is a form of vitamin B3 found in food and used as a dietary supplement and medication. It has the formula C6H6N2O.
Nicotinamide riboside is a pyridine-nucleoside form of vitamin B3 that functions as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+. It has the formula C11H15N2O5+.
Niacin (nicotinic acid), nicotinamide and Nicotinamide riboside (NR) are all NAD+ precursors, and they can be used by cells to create more NAD.
However, NR is more potent than nicotinamide and nicotinic acid at increasing NAD+, also NR does not cause flushing and does not inhibit sirtuins when supplementing with high dosage compared with nicotinamide and nicotinic acid.
Nicotinamide riboside (NR) VS Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)
NMN bulk powder is same as NR, is a derivative of niacin. Moreover, the two materials could use to increase NAD+.
Nevertheless, there are differences.
|Differences||nicotinamide riboside (NR)||nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)|
|human clinical studies||Have at least four published||No|
|It’s safe for humans||Confirmed||No|
|FDA safety notifications||Have three||No|
|Increases NAD||About 220%||About 170%|
|Can enter the cell||Yes||No|
|Using form||taken orally||mostly studied by injection|
|Fits into a 300 mg capsule||easily||does not|
Nicotinamide Riboside Health Benefits
Nicotinamide Riboside helps energy generation
In animals, NR supplementation reduced NAD consumption, which improved mitochondrial function, rapidly restored muscle mass, and conserve strength NAD levels and exercise volume in older mice, helping maintain muscle mass and function, supports more energy generation.
Nicotinamide Riboside improves cognitive function
NR preserves the nerve cells in the brain by activating the SIRT3, Supplementation stimulates the NAD pathways and helps prevent degeneration in mind.
NR boosted cognitive function and slowed progression of Alzheimer’s disease in mice given NR for three months.
Nicotinamide Riboside prevents hearing loss
By activating the SIRT3 pathway, a UNC study found it helped protect rodents against noise-induced hearing loss.
Nicotinamide Riboside protects the liver
Taken NR orally increases NAD in the body, which helps protect the liver. NR stopped fat accumulation, lowered oxidative stress, prevented inflammation, and improved insulin sensitivity in the liver of mice.
Furthermore, NR could extend longevity, Increases metabolism, supports the fight against cancer, reduce diabetic symptoms, increases metabolism, may help with weight loss.
Is Nicotinamide Riboside Safe?
Yes, NR is safe.
NR has three published clinical trials confirming it is safe for human consumption.
Careful analyzing and stressed all the preclinical and clinical information available on NR assure it is safe and well tolerated.
Niagen is safe and GRAS, using scientific procedures, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA).
Nicotinamide Riboside Human Trials
There are many pre-clinical studies have been conducted testing NR in various model systems.
In 2015, the first human clinical studies completed, and the results demonstrated that NR safely and effectively boosts levels of NAD in healthy human volunteers.
- A placebo-controlled clinical trial of nicotinamide riboside in obese men by randomized: safety, insulin-sensitivity, and lipid-mobilizing effects
–Published in The American/Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Results: 12 wk of NR supplementation in doses of 2000 mg/d appears safe, but does not improve insulin sensitivity and whole-body glucose metabolism in obese, insulin-resistant men.
- Chronic nicotinamide riboside supplementation is well-tolerated and raises NAD+ in healthy middle-aged and older adults.
–Published in Nature Communications
- Nicotinamide Riboside is Especially and Orally Bioavailable in Mice and Humans
–Published in Nature Communications
Here we define the time and dose-dependent effects of NR on blood NAD metabolism in humans. The report shows that human blood NAD can rise as much as 2.7-fold with a single oral dose of NR in pilot research of one individual and that oral NR elevates mouse hepatic NAD with apparent and superior pharmacokinetics to those of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. The further show, single doses of 100, 300 and 1,000 mg of NR produce dose-dependent increases in the blood NAD metabolome at first clinical trial of NR pharmacokinetics in humans. Also inform that nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NAAD), which was not considered to be en route for the changing of NR to NAD, is formed from NR and discover that the rise in NAAD is a very sensitive biomarker of effective NAD repletion.
- Open-Label, non-randomized research of the pharmacokinetics of the nutritional supplement nicotinamide riboside (NR) and its have effects on blood NAD+ levels in healthy volunteers
–Published in PLoS One
This study provides measurable evidence that when we age, and our bodies produce a lot of extra PARP due to accumulated oxidative damage to our DNA, this may result in reduced levels of NAD in our tissues. These lower NAD levels may play a significant role in the aging process by limiting energy production, DNA repair and other vital communications between cells.
- Repeat dose NRPT (nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene) enhances NAD+ levels in humans safely and sustainably: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
–Published in NPJ Aging Mechanisms of Disease
Here, we show this first-in-humans clinical trial designed to assess the safety and efficacy of a repeat dose of NRPT. NRPT evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study in a population of 120 healthy adults ages at 60 ~80 years old. The study composed of three treatment arms: placebo, the recommended dose of NRPT (NRPT 1X), and the double dose of NRPT (NRPT 2X). It shows that a repeat dose of NRPT is a safe and effective way to increase NAD+ levels sustainably.
Nicotinamide Riboside optimal dosage
Getting the NR dosage correct can help avoid nicotinamide riboside side effects as well. Most of the researches are in the thousands of milligrams per kilogram of body weight, but the suggested NR supplement dose is 1-200 mg per day.
There are many anecdotal reports of doses up to 600 mg per day, which can increase mental energy and focus, but these do not recommend for first-time users. NIAGEN® has a successful New Dietary Ingredient Notification with FDA (NDIN 882) for daily-recommended intake of not more than 180 mg/day.
Nicotinamide Riboside side effects
There are few nicotinamide riboside side effects. A compound is a natural form of vitamin B3 suggesting it’s generally safe.
Most users will not have nicotinamide riboside side effects unless physically active. Even then, the loss of physical performance was based on theoretical animal models while there is no human evidence.
Where to buy Nicotinamide Riboside Powder?
If you want to find Nicotinamide riboside in bulk, Cima Science Co., Ltd may is your better choice. Currently, Cima Science Co., Ltd manufacture raw materials of Nicotinamide riboside (chloride form) stable and have the capital to offer in large quantities. 30kgs inventory is available. A price quote and COA (certificate of analysis) or detailed specification sheet, please feel free to contact us.
Frequently Asked Questions:
Could you offer Nicotinamide riboside powder in bulk?
Yes, Cimasci has sufficient stocks of NR powder, meet the quality requirements from customers and arrange the delivery in the fastest time.
What aspects does Cima Science test for Nicotinamide Riboside Powder?
Usually, we test NR Assay, water content, Identification by NMR, Heavy metals
Residual solvents, Microbes, also meet customers other requests if necessary.
Do you have similar products of Nicotinamide Riboside, like NMN?
Besides NR, we also offer NMN (or called beta-Nicotinamide Mononucleotide), NAD+, NADH, NADP+, and NADPH.
Which products can you recommend for matching with NR?
Pterostilbene, Resveratrol, PQQ, CoQ10 (ubiquinone/ubiquinol), quercetin, oxaloacetic acid, d-ribose, etc.
Nicotinamide Riboside latest literature:
- Nicotinamide riboside is uniquely and orally bioavailable in mice and humans
- Chronic nicotinamide riboside supplementation is well-tolerated and elevates NAD+ in healthy middle-aged and older adults
- 2013 -Nicotinamide riboside, a trace nutrient in foods, is a Vitamin B3 with effects on energy metabolism and neuroprotection
- Discoveries of Nicotinamide Riboside as a Nutrient and Conserved NRK Genes Establish a Preiss-Handler Independent Route to NAD in Fungi and Humans
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