What is limonin?
Limonin is one kind of limonoids.
Limonoids are the triterpenoid derivatives that exist in citrus extract and other plants of Rutaceae and Meliaceae.
Limonoids are a class of compounds that have been discovered in citrus fruits, including limonin (nomilin), deacetylnomilin, obacunone, and nomilinic acid. They’re all triterpenoids with furan rings and are known as tetraterpenes.
Limonin is a compound found in the limons family. It has many different names, including monocitrate D-cyclo-lactone and dihydrotachysterol (D Taliban). Chemically, it is a member of a class of compounds called Furanolactones.
In the undamaged citrus fruit, Limonoate A-ring lactone (LARL) is present in form of non-bitter limonin. After the fruit is damaged or squeezed, it passes through the lemon under acidic conditions.
Catalysis of limonin D-ring lactone hydrolase (LDRLase), LRL is quickly converted into limonin with a strong bitter taste.
The other main bitter substance is Dihydroflavone Hesperidin.
The highest concentration of limonin is seeds.
Limonin Chemical and Physical Features
|English Name||Bulk Limonin powder|
|Other Names||Citrus Limonin, limonoate D-ring-lactone, limonoic acid di-delta-lactone, 7,16-Dioxo-7,16-dideoxylimondiol|
|Extract from||Citrus, grapefruit, lemons, oranges|
|Appearance||Yellow to white powder|
|Solubility||Easily soluble in ester organic solvents, hardly soluble in water, and highly soluble in methanol and ethanol|
|Bulk quantity||25kg / drum|
Limonin VS limonin glucoside (LG)
The structure of limonin glucosides (LG)is a form of glycosidic bond that binds carbon 17 or carbon 15 of limonin with a molecule of glucose. For instance, methyldeacetylnomilinate 17-O-β-D-Glc，alamin17-O-β-D-Glc、obacunone17-O-β-D-Glc和nomilin17-O-β-D-Glc.
Llimonin is insoluble in water, and has an obvious bitter taste, while limonin glucoside has good solubility in water, and almost no bitterness.
So Limonin is suitable for capsule filling, while limonin glucoside is a good choice for functional drinks.
Limonin vs Limonene
Limonene belongs to aromatic cannabis terpenoid，which is produced by the resin glands of cannabis flowers.
It is a colorless oily liquid with a lemon-like fragrance and is widely used as a flavor and fragrance additive in food.
Limonene is found in the peels of citrus fruits and many varieties of hemp.
Like myrcene, limonene is one of the most abundant terpenes in cannabis.
Animal experiments show that limonene has good antitussive, expectorant, and antibacterial effects. It is clinically used to promote choleretics, dissolve stones, promote the secretion of digestive juice and eliminate intestinal gas.
Scientists found that limonene suppressed the tumor’s growth in rodent experiments. However, there is not enough evidence to show CBD products rich in limonene can treat cancer effectively.
Llimonin VS Nomilin
Nomilin is one kind of limonin. It has anti-parasitic, anti-viral, anti-cancer, anti-metastasis, anti-angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory, immune regulation, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, and anti-virus active. Nomilin inhibits the growth of Aedes mosquitoes and HIV-1 replication by inhibiting HIV-1 protease. In animal models, Nomilin induces phase II enzymes by increasing the expression of glutathione-s-transferase and NADPH quinone reductase. In animals fed high-fat diets, Nomilin activates GR5, increases glucose tolerance, and reduces body weight, blood sugar levels, and insulin levels. In the body, Nomilin increases white blood cell count and antibody titers but inhibits delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. In addition, Nomilin also inhibits the cell proliferation of aromatase and breast cancer cells.
Limonin food sources
Limonin is a rare alkaloid found in citrus fruits, such as oranges and lemons. It can also be found at higher concentrations within certain seeds like those from the Dictamnus genus of plants.
The common sources of limonin are Citrus, Navel orange, orange, grapefruit, lemon, grape Citrus Aurantium Extract, Immature Bitter Orange, Fructus Aurantii Immaturus Citrus juice, Orange juice, grape juice, lemon juice, grapefruit juice, etc.
The bitterness of citrus juice comes from two sources, naringin, and limonin.
The longer time citrus juice is placed, the bitter the taste. It’s called delayed bitterness of citrus juice. The reason is that limonin is formed in this process.
In the limonin family, there are two types: A-ring lactones and D-ring cyclic molecules. The difference lies in their molecular structure; while an acid catalyst will quickly convert one type into its corresponding counterpart, leaving behind that initial bitterness as they break down with hydrolytic enzymes present inside citrus juice.
The bitterness threshold of limonin in water solution is about 20 times more bitter than naringue.
Citrus Limonin Benefits
Limonin has a variety of biological activities such as anti-tumor, insect anti-feeding, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hypnotic. It can be used in functional food additives, anti-cancer foods, pesticides, feed additives, etc.
Citrus limonin is beneficial for cancer cure
Oral administration of limonin to guinea pigs can increase the activity of glutathione transferase (GST) in the small intestine mucosa and liver by 3-4 times. Generally speaking, compounds that induce GST activity can inhibit the carcinogenicity of chemical carcinogens, because limonin activates the activity of this enzyme, thereby inhibiting the carcinogenic effect of chemical carcinogens.
analgesic and anti-inflammatory function
Citrus limonin glucoside (LG) has an impressive local anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in mice. In the acetic acid writhing experiment, it can significantly inhibit formalin-induced pain responses with high doses being more effective than low ones proving that this substance does indeed have significant therapeutic properties. However, there is no particular dose at which its activity peaks; rather it’s dependent on how much you give your body mass – meaning those who consume a lot tend not only to suffer less from inflammatory diseases but also have better quality lives!
Limonin has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on inflammation caused by xylene.
A 2007 study showed that mouse ears swelling in response to different irritants can be reduced with the help of limonin supplements.
Application of limonin
- In the food sector
limonin glucoside (LG) have anti-cancer, cholesterol-lowering and anti-tumor activities, and its glycosides have good water solubility and no bitter taste, so they can be directly used as functional food additives.
- In the medical field
Limonin can improve neurodegenerative diseases and the decline of cognitive function by protecting nerve cells and preventing oxidative damage caused by aging. It can develop plant-derived drugs that prevent aging and improve learning and memory; limonin It can protect the liver from damage by anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, so it can be used to develop natural medicines for the treatment of liver diseases.
- In animal husbandry and agriculture
Limonin compounds play a role in deworming and health care, disease prevention, and treatment enhancing animal detoxification, anti-stress, feed preservation agent, and rumen regulation in animal husbandry. The various excellent biological activities of limonin and its analogs are more conducive to animal health, and it can also be developed into feed additives and added to animal and poultry feed.
The prices of different specifications of limonin are different.
Based on the current raw material cost, the bulk price of Limonin 98% is about $800/kg
Where to buy limonin glucoside powder in bulk?
Wuxi Cima Science has been supplying our clients limonin with stable quality and good price for many years. Please feel free to reach out to us if you are interested in this product.