What is Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone?
Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, also know as Neohesperidin DC, Neo-DHC and NHDC for short, is an enhanced sweetener produced by neohesperidin. NHDC is considered as a high-strength, non-nutritive sweetener with a pleasant taste; it can improve the sweetness and quality of different food recipes.
Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone is a compound that roughly 1500-1800 times sweeter than sugar at threshold concentrations and it weighs about 340 times sweeter than sugar.
Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone is usually used in food additives industries and dietary supplement.
Discover and source of Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone
Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone was found in the 1960s as part of a U.S. Department of an agriculture research project to find ways for minimizing the bitterness in citrus juices. Neohesperidin is such a bitter component that exists in the peel and pulp of bitter orange and other citrus fruit; it is also an active flavonoid ingredient of citrus aurantium fruit. When treated with potassium hydroxide or some other strong base, and then hydrogenated, it becomes Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC).
NHDC does not occur in nature.
Neo-DHC is hydrogenated from natural neohesperidin—a natural source, but it underwent chemical transformations, so it is not a natural product.
Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone VS other sweeteners
Different sweetness and taste
Compared with the sucrose, neohesperidin DC is roughly 1500-1800 times sweeter than sugar and 1,000 times sweeter than the sucrose, while sucralose is 400-800 times and ace-k is 200 times sweeter than sugar.
Neohesperidin DC tastes cleanly and has long aftertastes. Like other high sugar glycosides, such as glycyrrhizin found in stevia and those from the licorice root, NHDC’s sweet is slow in onset than sugar’s and lingers in the mouth for a long time.
Good stability and high safety
NHDC is stable under high temperature, acidic or alkaline conditions and therefore can be used in applications requiring a longer shelf life. NHDC can keep food safe for up to five years under optimal conditions
Human perception of sweetness and taste is mediated by T1Rs, the first family of GPCRs, TIRs are expressed in gustatory of the soft palate and tongue, including TIR1, T1R2, and TIR3, which are often found in the form of dimers. The dimer T1R1-TIR3 is an amino acid receptor, which expresses and participates in taste recognition. The dimer T1R2-T1R3 is a sweet receptor, which participates in sweet taste recognition.
Sweeteners such as sucrose, aspartame, saccharin, and cyclamate work on the extracellular structure region of T1R2. NHDC and cyclamate act on the transmembrane part of T1R3 to produce sweetness. Neohesperidin DC interacts with specific amino acid residues in the transmembrane region of T1R3 to induce its own sweetness and at the same time，it can induce the synergistic sweetening effect of the dimer T1R2-T1R3. As a sweetener, NHDC has a significant sweetening effect when it is compounded with other sweeteners with a small number of ingredients.
Besides, Neohesperidin DC differs from traditional sweeteners in its functions of sweetening, aroma enhancement, bitterness concealment, and flavor modification.
Benefits and potential applications of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC)
In recent years, many studies show that neohesperidin dihydrochalcone has a significant concentration-dependent scavenging activity on stable free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Especially, NHDC has the most substantial inhibitory effect on H2O2 and HOCl. (the scavenging rate of HOCl and H2O2 was 93.5% and 73.5% respectively)
What’s more, NHDC can inhibit protein degradation and cleavage of the plasmid DNA strand, and protect the HIT-T15, HUVEC cell death from HOCl attack.
NHDC has different antioxidant activity against various free radicals. The antioxidant activity of NHDC also embodies that it can partly inhibit the browning effect of pigment deposition caused by polyphenol oxidase, which can also significantly inhibit the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) induced by infrared radiation, thus protecting human skin from premature aging due to exposure to infrared radiation.
Application: NHDC can be a potential anti-browning additive and whitening agent
Lower blood sugar and Lower Cholesterol
NHDC is an efficient, non-toxic, low-calorie sweetener that satisfies people’s need for sweetness and thus reduces sugar intake.
Recent studies have shown that NHDC can inhibit α-amylase in mammals in varying degrees and then reduce the body’s absorption of sugar, thereby reducing blood sugar in the body, which is very important in medicine, especially for diabetic patients.
Application: NHDC can be used as a sugar-free, calorie-free sweetener. When used properly, it may replace sucrose and reduce human sucrose intake. It is suitable for obese and non-obese people.
Protect the liver
Zhang Shuo et al. found that NHDC can reduce the levels of ALT, AST in serum and hydroxyproline in liver tissues of mice with liver fibrosis induced by CCI, and also slow down the degeneration and necrosis of cells and liver fibrosis in varying degrees. Moreover, the decrease of ALT and AST in serum can improve lipid metabolism and liver function, inhibit the formation of fatty liver and endothelial plaque in the main arteries.
Besides, NHDC can effectively alleviate the oxidative damage induced by CC1, reduce inflammation, and cell apoptosis.
Application: NHDC is hopeful to be used as a hepatoprotective agent.
Prevent gastric ulcer
NHDC can inhibit gastric acid secretion, so it can be used as an antacid to mix with Aluminium Hydroxide Gel or other common acid-making agents to improve the gastric acid resistance of the latter.
Suhrez et al. found that NHDC could significantly reduce the ulcer index induced by cold restrain stress（CRS）. Its activity is comparable to that of ranitidine, which can inhibit the activity of histamine and considerably reduce the secretion of gastric acid and pepsin.
Application: NHDC may become a new raw material for gastric medicine.
NHDC is added to feed as sweetener, not only because of its pleasant taste and inducing animal appetite, but also because of its probiotic effect found by Daly et al. When NHDC was added to piglet feed, Lactobacillus in the caecum entrance of piglets increased significantly with the increase of lactic acid concentration in the intestinal cavity. It can affect the symbiotic intestinal flora, regulate the immunity of the body, and reduce intestinal diseases.
Application: Neohesperidin DC can be used as a feed additive, NHDC improves the palatability of feeding stuff, increases animal appetite, and improve intestinal bacteria, then stimulates their growth.
Neohesperidin DC safety
NHDC is a non- carious, non-fermentative sweetener. Empirical research on toxicity that has been done. The metabolism of NHDC in the human body is the same as that of other natural flavonoid glycosides. NHDC has a fast metabolism, no stimulation to the human body, and no toxic side effects.
Neo-DHC has been archived in the European Pharmacopoeia two decades ago and approved as a sweetener by the European Union, but not by the FDA. In the United States, neo-DHC is approved only for use as a flavor enhancer. Besides, NHDC registration for GRAS status in the FDA is under the way.
Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) recommended dose and Side effects.
For desserts and dairy products, the dosage: 10-35 ppm ( sweetener), 1-5 ppm( flavor enhancer)
For Pharmaceutical Bitterness Masking, the dosage: 10-30 ppm( sweetener), 1-5 ppm( flavor enhancer)
For feed flavorings, a maximum recommended dose: 30-35 mg NHDC/kg complete feed, 5 mg NHDC/L water; 3-8 mg NHDC/L water for sucking and weaned
Different purposes determine the dose.
However, if taken in excess, any ingredient may pose a risk to the human body. Studies have shown that neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) may cause nausea and migraine when the concentration is about 20 ppm or more. It is recommended to wear surgical masks when dealing with pure NHDC.
Producer and manufacturers of Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC)
Cima already has a production line of neohesperidin, NHDC is one of the new products CIMA developed for our customers. Many years of experience guarantee the quality of the products and the processes of production in CIMA.
NHDC and neohesperidin manufacturing, as well as all our finished products, meets international quality standards. For any further information or other queries about Neohesperidin DC, please feel free to contact us. We will be pleased to help and assist you!
A: What are the current applications of NHDC in the market?
- As a sweetener and taste enhancer: Desserts, ice cream and dairy products; Beverage, soft drinks and juice industries; Candies.
- Flavoring agent: Sauces and soups and animal feed and health industries.
- Pharmaceutical industry: a masking agent—cover up the bitter
- Personal care products: mouth rinses, toothpaste
A：Can NHDC replace other sweeteners？
NHDC is an efficient, non-toxic, and low-calorie sweetener, which can improve flavor and inhibit bitterness. However, it has some other characteristics that limit it to use as a sweetener. First, it has a strong cooling effect on the tongue. Second, It has a licorice-like and bitter taste. Third, it has a slower onset and has a lingering taste that makes it different from sucrose.
A: What’s the advantage of Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone respect to other sweeteners?
- High efficiency: Neohesperidin DC a sweetener of natural origin with higher sweetness intensity in Low concentrations. It has a lingering taste than other sweeteners.
- Healthy: NHDC is non-caloric. Also, the glycemic index of NHDC is zero. This advantage makes neohesperidin DC suitable for a broader range of products than other sweeteners, including products for people with pathological conditions associated with obesity or metabolic syndrome.
- Stability: It is more stable under high temperature, acidic, or alkaline conditions that allow Neohesperidin DC to be used in different industries and different stages of the production process.
- Costs savings: Neohesperidin DC can achieve the desired effect in low doses and is synergistic with other more expensive sweeteners.
- Flavor enhancer: As a flavor enhancer, the flavonoids play a role by increasing the flavor of fruits and cocoa derivatives. Its pleasant and intense sweetness of NHDC makes it widely used in different fields and industries; it can reduce unpopular flavors in various food formulations, such as sour, bitter, etc.