What is NAD+？
NAD is short for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.
It is a coenzyme and exists in NAD+ form and NADH form.
Here we talk about NAD+.
Now, there is a small power plant in every cell of your body. It is called the mitochondria.
Mitochondria are the source of all energy in the body. From lifting weights, blinking, digesting food to the heartbeat, everything relies on mitochondria.
NAD+ is the primary source to keep mitochondria activity.
When we were young, our bodies were full of NAD+. We get all the NAD+ we want.
But as we age, our NAD+ levels begin to fall like stones. Every 20 years, your NAD+ level drops by 50%.
Why we call NAD+ Cell Regenerator?
Our body has many different demands for the active and function properly.
NAD+ (CAS No.53-84-9) cellular energy powers all of the body’s functions, such as keeping the heart beating, expanding and contracting the lungs, and enabling the brain to process thoughts.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide not only responds to our essential body functions, but also protects against oxidative stress, repairs DNA damage, creates building blocks for DNA and RNA, and opens a longevity protein called sirtuins.
Mechanism of NAD+Aging
NAD does not affect the body directly. It just helps your cells work better.
NAD works by transferring electrons from one place to another. Therefore, you can think of each NAD coenzyme as a shuttle bus that brings particles to the mitochondria.
The more shuttle buses you have, the more electrons enter the mitochondria. The chemical reactions caused by the transmission can provide energy to cells and keep them vibrant.
Mitochondria will process fewer nutrients and reactions if there are not many NAD shuttle buses. As a result, your cells begin to age and die. Aging is coming.
Besides, the “longevity gene” Sirtuins is a family of seven proteins. These proteins control aging through cellular health. Sirtuins can only work in the presence of NAD+. If sirtuins are the CEO, NAD+ is the salary for the CEO and employees. The company can’t work well without enough NAD+.
How does NAD+ health the brain?
A 2007 study showed that “NAD+ and NADH (a simplified form of NAD+) may mediate brain damage and tissue damage.” Researches have shown NADH can be transported via astrocytes, and NAD+ can significantly reduce ischemic brain damage.
NAD+ helps to supplement neurotransmitter supply, improve cognitive function, eliminate overcome anxiety, addictive substances, depression, post-traumatic stress, chronic or acute stress, CTE and other conditions, allowing the brain to return to normal function.
Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Supplements
In mice, NAD+ injections have been successful.
In humans, NAD+ by intravenous injection is becoming more popular in the clinic, although it costs more than $1,000 a day and requires patients to receive intravenous drip for 8 hours.
NAD+ in capsule
Scientific tests showed that intraperitoneal injections of Nam, NAD+, and NADH significantly increased the urine output of Nam and its metabolites. Oral Nam and NAD+ have the same effect.
The sublingual capillaries can directly absorb NMN, NR, NAD+, because of these products’ small molecular weight and excellent hydrophilicity. This dose is called sublingual transmission.
NAD+ and NADH
NAD has two forms: NAD+ and NADH. The oxidized form is NAD+, and the reduced way is NADH.
Let’s go back the shuttle bus metaphor, and we can look at them as full of electron passengers bus and empty bus.
NAD and NADH can both activate a variety of enzymes.
NAD and NADH transform into each other in many metabolic activities. In some metabolic reactions, NAD is an essential catalyst while NADH is a useful by-product. However, in other reactions, they exchange status.
In cells, most oxidations are accomplished by the removal of hydrogen atoms. Each molecule of NAD+ can acquire two electrons, or we say two electrons reduce it. However, only one proton accompanies the reduction. The other proton produced as two hydrogen atoms are removed from the molecule being oxidized is liberated into the surrounding medium.The reaction is :NAD+ + 2H -> NADH + H+
What’s the relation among NA, NR, NMN, and NAD+?
Niacin(NA) is the traditional form of B3.
Nicotinamide (NAM) also called niacinamide, is one kind of Vitamin B3 and usually exist in dietary supplements and medications.
Nicotinamide Riboside (NR) and Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) are the precursors to Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD+.
NMN can’t readily enter cells. It usually converts to NR firstly before arrived at the cell.
NR is known as the ultimate predecessor of NAD+ because it can reach NAD+ in the most efficient path.
Most NAD cells include three different starting materials or building blocks. Each of them is a member of the vitamin B3 family.
There are several different paths from the original content to the NAD, NR is the direct way.
- Increases cellular metabolism and energy production
- Maintains healthy mitochondria
- Helps enhance brain functions
- Promotes mobile repair
- Promote healthy aging to make you look good
Can all NAD precursors become NAD+?
There are many NAD+ precursors, but not all of them are as widely studied. By now, scientists found below five molecules can finish the chemical transformations to NAD+.
Nicotinamide Riboside (NR), Nicotinic Acid (NA), Nicotinamide (Nam), Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN)and tryptophan (Trp)
NAD+ cell regenerator side effects?
NAD seems safe for most people when used appropriately and short-term, up to 12 weeks. Most people do not experience any side effects when taking the recommended amount each day, which is 10 mg.
Is NAD+ helpful for CFS?
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Some research shows that NAD might reduce symptoms of CFS. It has shown benefit on fatigue when used alone, in combination with coenzyme Q10, or as an adjunct to traditional medications.